Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). Reiner (1997) Critical Issues in the Economics of Climate Change , B. Flannery et al. (editors), International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, London 2002. 29:182–192. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1. Accessed March 2016. http://acdb-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/index.html. 2016. Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.032. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1. Ozone is also a greenhouse gas, but it differs from other greenhouse gases in several ways. Global atmospheric concentration data for selected halogenated gases (Figure 4) were compiled by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and a peer-reviewed study on nitrogen trifluoride. Historical CO2 records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores. Learn about the basic physical and chemical characteristics of Earth's various atmospheric gas molecules. This figure shows the average amount of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere each year, based on satellite measurements. 9. From carbon dioxide to space travel, clear the air in this quiz about Earth’s atmosphere. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Overall, the total amount of ozone in the atmosphere decreased by about 3 percent between 1979 and 2014 (see Figure 5). 2008. 1 The indicators in this chapter characterize emissions of the major greenhouse gases resulting from human activities, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, and how emissions and concentrations have changed over time. Concentrations of these greenhouse gases are measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb), or parts per trillion (ppt) by volume. As these organisms expire and fall to the ocean floor, their carbon is transported downward and eventually buried at depth. Langenfelds. Sci. Lampedusa Island, Italy: 1993 CE to 2000 CE Nature 383:231–235. Monthly mean CH4 concentrations for Cape Grim, Australia. Accessed June 2016. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats. Each line represents a different data source. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases once again reached new highs in 2018. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Download related technical information PDF, http://science.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html, http://acdb-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/cloud_slice/new_data.html, http://acdb-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/index.html, www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/luethi2008/luethi2008.html, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/lawdome.html, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/siple.html, http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/co2/csiro, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/lampis.html, www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/loulergue2008/loulergue2008.html, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/atm_meth/lawdome_meth.html, http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/atm_meth/csiro/csiro-shetlandch4.html, www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/insitu/cats/cats_conc.html, Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases. Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1959 CE to 2015 CE Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Accessed July 16, 2016. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/flask/surface/ch4_mlo_surface-flask_1_ccgg_month.txt. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). For example, roughly 100 million years ago, during the Cretaceous Period, CO2 concentrations appear to have been several times higher than today (perhaps close to 2,000 ppm). For carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and halogenated gases, recent measurements come from monitoring stations around the world, while measurements of older air come from air bubbles trapped in layers of ice from Antarctica and Greenland. Glacial-interglacial and millennial scale variations in the atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration during the last 800,000 years. Some halogenated gases are considered major greenhouse gases due to their very high global warming potentials and long atmospheric lifetimes even if they only exist at a few ppt (see table). Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. This indicator describes how the levels of major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have changed over time. 2013. Atmospheric methane record from Shetland Islands, Scotland (October 2002 version). SBUV merged ozone data set (MOD). Fossil fuel combustion is the country's major source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Historic CH4 records from Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Antarctic firn data, and archived air samples from Cape Grim, Tasmania. Data sources: NASA, 2013,11 2015,12 201613Web update: August 2016, Key Points | Background | About the Indicator | About the Data | Technical Documentation. Shetland Islands, Scotland: 1993 CE to 2001 CE The data come from a variety of historical ice core studies and recent air monitoring sites around the world. 8. Data sources: AGAGE, 2016;8 Rigby, 2016;9 NOAA, 201610Web update: August 2016. Loulergue, L., A. Schilt, R. Spahni, V. Masson-Delmotte, T. Blunier, B. Lemieux, J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, T.F. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The effect of each greenhouse gas on Earth’s climate depends on its chemical nature and its relative concentration in the atmosphere. Water vapour is the most potent greenhouse gas in Earth’s atmosphere, but its behaviour is fundamentally different from that of the other greenhouse gases. 1. Global atmospheric concentration measurements for carbon dioxide (Figure 1), methane (Figure 2), and nitrous oxide (Figure 3) come from a variety of monitoring programs and studies published in peer-reviewed literature. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Accessed April 14, 2016. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/co2/in-situ/surface. Another process, the “biological pump,” involves the uptake of dissolved CO2 by marine vegetation and phytoplankton (small, free-floating, photosynthetic organisms) living in the upper ocean or by other marine organisms that use CO2 to build skeletons and other structures made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). 2015. What Does Stabilizing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations Mean? Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased substantially since the beginning of the industrial era, rising from an annual average of 280 ppm in the late 1700s to 401 ppm as measured at Mauna Loa in 2015—a 43 percent increase (see Figure 1). Data source: Compilation of five underlying datasets6Web update: August 2016. Rigby, M. 2016 update to data originally published in: Arnold, T., C.M. Chamard, P., L. Ciattaglia, A. di Sarra, and F. Monteleone. As a result, concentrations of many major ozone-depleting gases have begun to stabilize or decline (see Figure 4, left panel). 2016. Other anthropogenic sources include the burning of forests and the clearing of land. Globally, the amount of ozone in the troposphere increased by about 3 percent between 1979 and 2014 (see Figure 5). www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1. EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 797,446 BCE to 1937 CE Some gases have a high capacity for absorbing infrared radiation or occur in significant quantities, whereas others have considerably lower capacities for absorption or occur only in trace amounts. Carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapour are the most important greenhouse gases. The global averages for ozone only cover the area between 50°N and 50°S latitude (77 percent of the Earth’s surface), because at higher latitudes the lack of sunlight in winter creates data gaps and the angle of incoming sunlight during the rest of the year reduces the accuracy of the satellite measuring technique.