These methods of observation and experimentation play a decisive role in natural and physical sciences. Economics concerns itself with scarce resources or the production and distribution of goods and services. The democrats thought the Constitution, the rule of law, parliament and independent judiciary might be able to check the ambitions and arbitrary will of the monarchs. Study of state and the government deals with the nature and formation of the State and tries to understand the government’s various forms and functions. There is no doubt about it that man is a social and political animal because he cannot do without society or state. It is true that it is not possible for Political Science to attain the same degree of exactness and universal application of its principles and laws that other natural and physical sciences do attain. It means historical approach is the doctrine of evolution applied to human institutions. But according to Janet, a French writer, “It is that part of social science which treats of the foundations of the State and the principles of the Government.” If we closely and carefully study Political Science, we come to know that despite the difference found between the State and the Government, the scope of one cannot be separated from that of the other. From the traditional point of view, we may define political science as. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; Like other methods, historical method also has its limitations. Consequently, no aspect of human life is free from state intervention. Sir Frederick Pollock has divided it into two parts: Theoretical Politics enters into the origin, nature and development of the State and deals with the principles of Political Science. It was Aristotle who first of all employed this method in analysing and comparing constitutions of 158 countries. History is the laboratory of Political Science. They did not concern themselves with the performance of institutions, their interaction and political behaviour of man. After his resignation, situation in Maharashtra deteriorated and at last Bombay had to be divided into two separate states, and named Maharashtra and Gujarat. By nature he desires to live in society and follows the rules and regulations of the State. While German scholars have gone to the extent of adopting analytical methods in order to give Political Science the character of a science, Holtzendorff has defended the claim of Political Science to be ranked as a science. It emphasises the dynamic nature of t he discipline and calls attention to the fact that the forces controlling the form and behaviour of the State and similar to those that operate in other institutions. e. Harold Laswell: “Politics is the study of influence and the influential” or “the study of the shaping and sharing of power.” f. David Easton: “Politics is the authoritative allocation of values.” g. Catlin: “Political Science is the study of the act of human and social control.” h. Andrew Heywood: “Politics can be defined as an activity through which people make, preserve and amend the general rules under which they live.”. Graham Wallas tried to interpret political phenomena in terms of psychological forces rather than form and structure. Therefore, the use of the term, “Politics” for this science is inappropriate. Robert A. Dahl further observes, “this definition of Political Science is very broad. (7) The Statistical of the Quantitative Method: This is one of the most modern and most useful methods for dealing with the political phenomena. For example, ‘State’, according to Aristotle, “came into existence originating in the bare needs of life and continuing its existence for the sake of good life.” It means that the State aims at doing maximum good to common man. Secondly, in Political Science we cannot make use of artificial contrivances (such as apparatus) for increasing or guiding the investigators power of observation or for registering the results. Hence, the meaning of the term “Politics” has also changed. Consequently its scope has widened and its functions have increased in number. It is of little use alone. Like other arts it deals with the various aspects of the life and tells us how and in w hat way we should lead our life. The study of politics is both humanistic and scientific and is centuries old. Political power: it belongs to the state and is manifested through the government’s organs like the legislature, executive, military, judiciary, police, bureaucracy, etc. Catlin defines Political Science as the study of “the act of human and social control” or “the study of control relationship of wills.” There are on the other hand German writers who study it from sociological point of view and they regard it as “the problem of power and social control.”. Emphasis should be on social change and not social preservation; the behaviorists had confined themselves exclusively to the description and analysis of facts, without taking sufficient care to understand these facts in their broad social context. The attempts to construct a science of society by means of biological analogies have been abandoned by all serious investigators of social phenomena.”. Belgium, Sweden, Holland, Denmark this form of government has already been introduced but it is not equally successful in each of these countries.’ Thus, we fail to find that uniformity, absoluteness and universality in the principles of Political Science which we find in other natural and physical sciences. Dr. Garner has warned us against the danger of the comparative method. Thus, it is quite clear that this method which conceives the state merely as a legal personality or a public corporation is very narrow. Dealing with the various terms, used for this science by different authors, Dr. Garner observes: “The obvious objection to the employment of the terms in dual sense could be removed by restricting its use to describe the activities by which public officials are chosen and political policies promoted or, in a wider sense the sum total of activities which have to do with the actual administration of public affairs, reserving the term, “Political Science” to describe the body of knowledge relating to the phenomena of the State.”. The advocates of Modern Political Theory justify these innovations by saying, “We are not simply adding terms to a new vocabulary, but rather are in the process of developing or adapting a new one……..; this is not only a matter of a conceptual vocabulary; it is an intimation of a major step forward in the nature of political science as science.”, Harold Laswell, a leading Political Scientist of the U.S.A. defines “Political Science, as an empirical discipline, (as) the study of the shaping and sharing of power” and a political act (as) one performed in power perspectives.”. These writers maintain that the political theorists in the past concentrated mainly on the state, government, institutions and their legal norms, rules and regulations or on political ideas and ideologies. Professor Gilchrist has given the example of Revolutions. In other words he says,” He who is unable to live in society or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or god. The central topic for the study has become the study of power. It confirms that Political Science is a deep study of all the political problems of the world. Our mission is to liberate knowledge.